Review: progesterone or progestogens lead to a marginal reduction in premenstrual syndrome symptoms.

The author conducted an analysis of randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled studies of progesterone or progestins in women diagnosed with PMS.  Oral micronized progesterone and the progestogens MPA, norethisterone and dydrogesterone, all showed a marginal benefit over placebo in symptom reduction. Author: Yonkers K. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Evid Based Ment Health 2002;5(2):56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12026905

Progestogens used in menopause. Side effects, mood and quality of life.

Author: Sherwin BB. Publication Year: 1999 Citation: J Reprod Med 1999;44(2 Suppl):227-32. This review summarizes the effects of progesterone on mood and other brain functions. Progesterone receptors are present in many of the same areas of the brain as estrogen receptors, including the limbic system and hypothalamus. The limbic system plays a prominent role in …

Micronized progesterone: a new option for women’s health care.

Author: Wetzel W. Publication Year: 1999 Citation: Nurse Pract 1999;24(5):62-6, 71, 75-6. This paper discusses the use of micronized progesterone as a safe, effective, and well-tolerated therapy and reviews indications for use. It also includes case studies and issues of patient compliance and the need for an individualized treatment plan for women receiving hormone therapy. …

Transdermal progesterone cream for vasomotor symptoms and postmenopausal bone loss.

Authors: Leonetti HB, Longo S, Anasti JN. Publication Year: 1999 Citation: Obstet Gynecol 1999;94(2):225-8. In this randomized controlled trial, 102 menopausal women were treated with topical progesterone (Pro-gest®, 20 mg daily) or placebo and monitored for 1 year. Improvement in vasomotor symptoms was seen in 83% of the women in the treatment group who had …

The relationship of longitudinal change in reproductive hormones and vasomotor symptoms during the menopausal transition.

Authors: Randolph JF, Sowers MF, Bondarenko I, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Bromberger JT, Brockwell SE, Matthews KA. Publication Year: 2005 Citation: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90(11):6106-12. Vasomotor symptoms are experienced by 65-76% of women going through menopause.  This study examined longitudinal changes in estradiol, FSH, testosterone, DHEA, sex hormone binding globulin, free estrogen index and …

Natural progesterone and antihypertensive action.

Authors: Rylance PB, Brincat M, Lafferty K, De Trafford JC, Brincat S, Parsons V, Studd JW. Publication Year: 1985 Citation: Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985;290(6461):13-4. In a placebo controlled, double blind crossover study, increasing doses of natural progesterone was given orally to six men and four postmenopausal women with mild to moderate hypertension …

Low-dose progesterone therapy in oestrogenised postmenopausal women: effects on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and liver function parameters.

Authors: Bolaji II, Grimes H, Mortimer G, Tallon DF, Fottrell PF, O’Dwyer EM. Publication Year: 1993 Citation: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1993;48(1):61-8. This 12 month prospective, open, non-comparative study measured the effects of progesterone (oral micronized 100mg/day) paired with 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and found progesterone had no adverse effects on …

Subfractions of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol during estrogen replacement therapy: A comparison between progestogens and natural progesterone.

Authors: Ottosson UB, Johansson BG, von Schoultz B. Publication Year: 1985 Citation: Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;151(6):746-50. Fifty-eight postmenopausal women were followed with respect to subfractions of high-density lipoprotein during 3 cycles of unopposed estrogen. The women received either levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or natural progesterone during the last ten days of the treatment period. Both …

Ovarian steroid protection against coronary artery hyperreactivity in rhesus monkeys.

Authors: Minshall RD, Stanczyk FZ, Miyagawa K, Uchida B, Axthelm M, Novy M, Hermsmeyer K. Publication Year: 1998 Citation: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83(2):649-59. Medroxyprogesterone acetate, but not natural progesterone, negated the protective effects of estradiol against coronary artery hyperreactivity. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9467588