Review: progesterone or progestogens lead to a marginal reduction in premenstrual syndrome symptoms.

The author conducted an analysis of randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled studies of progesterone or progestins in women diagnosed with PMS.  Oral micronized progesterone and the progestogens MPA, norethisterone and dydrogesterone, all showed a marginal benefit over placebo in symptom reduction.

Author: Yonkers K.

Publication Year: 2002

Citation: Evid Based Ment Health 2002;5(2):56.

Posted in Premenopause, Progesterone, Progestin Tagged with: , ,

Progestogens used in menopause. Side effects, mood and quality of life.

Author: Sherwin BB.

Publication Year: 1999

Citation: J Reprod Med 1999;44(2 Suppl):227-32.

This review summarizes the effects of progesterone on mood and other brain functions. Progesterone receptors are present in many of the same areas of the brain as estrogen receptors, including the limbic system and hypothalamus. The limbic system plays a prominent role in regulating mood and emotion. As a comparison, progesterone decreases brain excitability, while estrogens increase it. This relates to why women with epilepsy have a higher frequency of seizures during the part of the cycle when estrogen levels are high, and a reduced frequency when progesterone levels are high. Estrogen and progesterone may also have differing effects on MAO, thereby affecting concentration of serotonin (a mood elevator) in the brain.

Posted in Brain, Estrogens, Menopausal Symptoms, Progesterone Tagged with: , , , , ,

Micronized progesterone: a new option for women’s health care.

Author: Wetzel W.

Publication Year: 1999

Citation: Nurse Pract 1999;24(5):62-6, 71, 75-6.

This paper discusses the use of micronized progesterone as a safe, effective, and well-tolerated therapy and reviews indications for use. It also includes case studies and issues of patient compliance and the need for an individualized treatment plan for women receiving hormone therapy.

Posted in Menopausal Symptoms, Progesterone, Safety Tagged with: , , ,

Transdermal progesterone cream for vasomotor symptoms and postmenopausal bone loss.

Authors: Leonetti HB, Longo S, Anasti JN.

Publication Year: 1999

Citation: Obstet Gynecol 1999;94(2):225-8.

In this randomized controlled trial, 102 menopausal women were treated with topical progesterone (Pro-gest®, 20 mg daily) or placebo and monitored for 1 year. Improvement in vasomotor symptoms was seen in 83% of the women in the treatment group who had experienced hot flashes, compared to 19% in the placebo group (p< .001). There was no difference noted in bone mineral densities between groups after one year. All women studied received a daily multivitamin and 1200 mg calcium.

Posted in Menopausal Symptoms, Progesterone Tagged with: , , , ,

The relationship of longitudinal change in reproductive hormones and vasomotor symptoms during the menopausal transition.

Authors: Randolph JF, Sowers MF, Bondarenko I, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Bromberger JT, Brockwell SE, Matthews KA.

Publication Year: 2005

Citation: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90(11):6106-12.

Vasomotor symptoms are experienced by 65-76% of women going through menopause.  This study examined longitudinal changes in estradiol, FSH, testosterone, DHEA, sex hormone binding globulin, free estrogen index and free testosterone index, and found that only FSH levels were associated with the prevalence and frequency of vasomotor symptoms.

Posted in Androgens, Estrogens, Menopausal Symptoms, Progesterone Tagged with: , , , , ,

Natural progesterone and antihypertensive action.

Authors: Rylance PB, Brincat M, Lafferty K, De Trafford JC, Brincat S, Parsons V, Studd JW.

Publication Year: 1985

Citation: Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985;290(6461):13-4.

In a placebo controlled, double blind crossover study, increasing doses of natural progesterone was given orally to six men and four postmenopausal women with mild to moderate hypertension who were not receiving any other antihypertensive drugs. Compared to before treatment values and to placebo, progesterone caused a significant reduction in blood pressure, suggesting that progesterone has an antihypertensive action rather than a hypertensive one as has been previously thought. The authors suggest this protective effect of progesterone should be investigated further.

Posted in Cardiovascular, Menopausal Symptoms, Progesterone Tagged with: , , ,

Menopausal hormone replacement therapy with continuous daily oral micronized estradiol and progesterone.

Authors: Hargrove JT, Maxson WS, Wentz AC, Burnett LS.

Publication Year: 1989

Citation: Obstet Gynecol 1989; 73( 4):606-12.

Fifteen menopausal subjects were studied to determine the efficacy and safety of hormone replacement therapy with micronized estradiol (E2) and progesterone. Ten subjects were given 0.7-E2 (1.05 mg daily) and progesterone (200-300 mg daily) and evaluated over one year at month 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12. Five subjects were administered conjugated estrogens (0.625mg daily) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (10 mg daily) and evaluated at the same intervals. Results showed all 10 women on E2 and progesterone had a decrease in total cholesterol with an increase in HDLs and sustained amenorrhea with no endometrial hyperplasia or withdrawal bleeding after six months of observation. Four of five women in the conjugated estrogen group continued to have withdrawal bleeding without endometrial hyperplasia. HDLs also increased in this group but no significant change in total cholesterol was found.

Posted in Cardiovascular, Estrogens, Formulations, Menopausal Symptoms, Progesterone Tagged with: , , , , , ,

Low-dose progesterone therapy in oestrogenised postmenopausal women: effects on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and liver function parameters.

Authors: Bolaji II, Grimes H, Mortimer G, Tallon DF, Fottrell PF, O’Dwyer EM.

Publication Year: 1993

Citation: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1993;48(1):61-8.

This 12 month prospective, open, non-comparative study measured the effects of progesterone (oral micronized 100mg/day) paired with 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and found progesterone had no adverse effects on the lipid profile when combined with CEE. This lack of effect differs from other studies that noted adverse effects on lipid profiles when synthetic progestins were utilized with CEE.

Posted in Cardiovascular, Estrogens, Formulations, Menopausal Symptoms, Progesterone, Safety Tagged with: , , , , , , ,

Subfractions of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol during estrogen replacement therapy: A comparison between progestogens and natural progesterone.

Authors: Ottosson UB, Johansson BG, von Schoultz B.

Publication Year: 1985

Citation: Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;151(6):746-50.

Fifty-eight postmenopausal women were followed with respect to subfractions of high-density lipoprotein during 3 cycles of unopposed estrogen. The women received either levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or natural progesterone during the last ten days of the treatment period. Both progestogens significantly lowered HDL cholesterol, whereas natural progesterone had no effect on HDL levels.

Posted in Cardiovascular, Estrogens, Formulations, Menopausal Symptoms, Progesterone, Progestin, Safety Tagged with: , , , , , , , ,

Ovarian steroid protection against coronary artery hyperreactivity in rhesus monkeys.

Authors: Minshall RD, Stanczyk FZ, Miyagawa K, Uchida B, Axthelm M, Novy M, Hermsmeyer K.

Publication Year: 1998

Citation: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83(2):649-59.

Medroxyprogesterone acetate, but not natural progesterone, negated the protective effects of estradiol against coronary artery hyperreactivity.

Posted in Cardiovascular, Menopausal Symptoms, Progesterone, Progestin, Safety Tagged with: , , , , ,