Unequal risks for breast cancer associated with different hormone replacement therapies: results from the E3N cohort study.

Authors: Fournier A, Berrino F, Clavel-Chapelon F. Publication Year: 2008 Citation: Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008;107(1):103-11. This large multicenter study in France followed 80,377 postmenopausal women for up to 12 years, and looked in particular at whether the type of progestogen used in combination with estrogen made a difference to the risk of developing breast cancer in …

Could transdermal estradiol + progesterone be a safer postmenopausal HRT? A review.

Authors: L’Hermite M, Simoncini T, Fuller S, Genazzani AR. Publication Year: 2008 Citation: Maturitas 2008;60(3-4):185-201. This detailed review examines the way different types of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) affect the cardiovascular system, the brain, and the risk of breast cancer.  It discusses the research that shows that non-oral estrogens have more favorable cardiovascular effects, such as improved …

Transdermal delivery of steroids.

Author: Sitruk-Ware R. Publication Year: 1989 Citation: Contraception 1989; 39(1): 1-20. This review summarizes the advantages of delivering steroids through the skin, as well as reviews skin biology. The authors make a strong case for the choice of transdermal delivery of hormones (especially estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone) for both male and female patients with respect to safety, …

Absorption of oral progesterone is influenced by vehicle and particle size.

Authors: Hargrove JT, Maxson WS, Wentz AC. Publication Year: 1989 Citation: Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161(4):948-51. This small sample study shows that significant serum progesterone levels can be achieved by oral administration of progesterone. Efficacy of absorption is improved using micronization in oil formulations. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2801843

Absorption of micronized progesterone from a nonliquefying vaginal cream.

Authors: Kimzey LM, Gumowski J, Merriam GR, Grimes GJ Jr, Nelson LM. Publication Year: 1991 Citation: Fertil Steril 1991; 56(5):995-6. The pharmacokinetics are compared between orally administered micronized progesterone, and that administered through a vaginal cream. Oral progesterone is extensively metabolized prior to reaching the target tissues, and progesterone metabolites may comprise a significant amount of progesterone …

Effects of oral and transdermal estrogen/progesterone regimens on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women. A randomized controlled trial.

Authors: Scarabin PY, Alhenc-Gelas M, Plu-Bureau G, Taisne P, Agher R, Aiach M. Publication Year: 1997 Citation: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17(11): 3071-8. Oral hormone replacement therapy postmenopausally has been associated with an increased risk of stoke due to thromboembolism. This randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the differing effects of oral and transdermal estrogen/progesterone therapy or placebo …

Percutaneous absorption of progesterone in postmenopausal women treated with transdermal estrogen.

Authors: Burry KA, Patton PE, Hermsmeyer K. Publication Year: 1999 Citation: Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180(6 Pt 1):1504-11. This pilot study demonstrated a significant increase in serum progesterone levels in 6 women receiving topical progesterone cream (Pro-gest®; 30-60 mg P4/day) and 17beta estradiol (0.05mg patch). The absorption of progesterone via a topical cream correlated well with estrogen …

Salivary, but not serum or urinary levels of progesterone are elevated after topical application of progesterone cream to pre-and postmenopausal women.

Authors: O’Leary P, Feddema P, Chan K, Taranto M, Smith M, Evans S. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000;53(5):615-20. Absorption of progesterone as provided in a topical preparation of “natural” progesterone cream to 6 premenopausal and 6 postmenopausal women was demonstrated via salivary hormone levels. Salivary progesterone concentrations reached their peak 1-4 hrs after application. …

Progesterone and progestins: applications in gynecology.

Authors: de Ziegler D, Fanchin R. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: Steroids 2000;65(10-11):671-9. This paper reviews the use of a transvaginal progesterone gel as a viable option to other routes of application of natural progesterone (intramuscular, oral micronized), and offered it as a viable option to synthetic progestins given the low incidence of side effects noted in existing …