Pharmacokinetic comparison of progesterone capsules with a progesterone gel after vaginal administration.

Authors: Kleinstein J, Schlegelmilch R, Mazur D, Vens-Cappell B. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Arzneimittelforschung 2002; 52(8):615-21. Twenty-four women participated in this randomized controlled, crossover study comparing the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of a vaginal progesterone capsule (200 mg/dose) vs a progesterone vaginal gel (90 mg/dose). Both were well tolerated, and no differences were noted with respect to safety. …

Distribution and metabolism of topically applied progesterone in a rat model.

Authors: Waddell BJ, O’Leary PC. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2002; 80(4-5): 449-55. Following topical application of a commercially available progesterone cream, concentrations of fat and water-soluble metabolites of progesterone were measured in various tissues (uterus, kidney, salivary gland, liver) as well as plasma and urine. The topically applied progesterone was demonstrated to …

Over-the-counter progesterone cream produces significant drug exposure compared to a food and drug administration-approved oral progesterone product.

Authors: Hermann AC, Nafziger AN, Victory J, Kulawy R, Rocci ML Jr, Bertino JS Jr. Publication Year: 2005 Citation: J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 5(6):614-9. In 12 healthy, postmenopausal women, steady state levels of progesterone in the blood were measured in a randomized crossover study comparing topical progesterone cream (Pro-gest®, 40 mg twice daily x 12 days ) …

Transdermal administration of oestrogen/progestogen hormone replacement therapy.

Authors: Whitehead MI, Fraser D, Schenkel L, Crook D, Stevenson JC. Publication Year: 1990 Citation: Lancet 1990; 335(8685):310-2. Sixteen estrogen-deficient women were evaluated on a course of transdermal estradiol and transdermal progestogen for five cycles. Regular withdrawal bleeding was noted in all but one patient. Fourteen endometrial biopsies were performed after the fifth cycle, with no evidence …

Prevention of endometrial hyperplasia by progesterone during long-term estradiol replacement: influence of bleeding pattern and secretory changes.

Authors: Moyer DL, de Lignieres B, Driguez P, Pez JP. Publication Year: 1993 Citation: Fertil Steril 1993;59(5):992-7. It is often presumed that progesterone levels must be high enough to induce endometrial bleeding by withdrawal in order to convey protection during estrogen replacement therapy. In this expanded observational study, the authors sought to determine the influence of withdrawal …

Morphometric, immunohistological and three-dimensional evaluation of the endometrium of menopausal women treated by oestrogen and Crinone®, a new slow-release vaginal progesterone.

Authors: Casanas-Roux F, Nisolle M, Marbaix E, Smets M, Bassil S, Donnez J. Publication Year: 1996 Citation: Hum Reprod 1996;11(2):357-63. Twenty estrogen-deprived women were given oral estrogen for 12 days followed by oral estrogen- vaginal progesterone gel for 12 days. Endometrial evaluation occurred before treatment, after the estrogen-only phase and after estrogen-progesterone gel treatment. Atrophy was present …

Transvaginal administration of progesterone.

Authors: Fanchin R, De Ziegler D, Bergeron C, Righini C, Torrisi C, Frydman R. Publication Year: 1997 Citation: Obstet Gynecol 1997;90(3):396-401. Three different doses of transvaginal progesterone gel were administered to 40 estrogen-deprived women aged 25-41 years. Estradiol was administered orally for 28 days, with progesterone added vaginally on alternate days from days 15-27. Plasma gonadotropins, E1, …

Intrauterine progesterone treatment of early endometrial cancer.

Authors: Montz FJ, Bristow RE, Bovicelli A, Tomacruz R, Kurman RJ. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186(4):651-7. This study evaluated the use of a progesterone-releasing IUD as a feasible treatment for early stage endometrial cancer (IA, grade 1). Twelve subjects were followed for 36 months. Results suggested IUD progesterone appeared to resolve some cases …

Twice-weekly transdermal estradiol and vaginal progesterone as continuous combined hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: a 1-year prospective study.

Authors: Cicinelli E, de Ziegler D, Galantino P, Pinto V, Barba B, Morgese S, Schonauer S. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187(3):556-60. In this study of 35 postmenopausal women, twice-weekly administration of a progesterone vaginal gel (45 mg P4/day) sufficiently protected the endometrium in women receiving transdermal estradiol (0.05 mg/d) as revealed by endometrial …

Topical progesterone cream has antiproliferative effect on estrogen-stimulated endometrium.

Authors: Leonetti HB, Wilson KJ, Anasti JN. Publication Year: 2003 Citation: Fertil Steril 2003;79(1):221-2 This randomized, controlled study involving 58 postmenopausal women demonstrated that topically applied progesterone cream (Pro-gest®) had an antiproliferative effect in postmenopausal women who had been given oral estrogens x 14 days prior to progesterone treatment. Treatment with topical progesterone did not differ in …