Progestogens used in menopause. Side effects, mood and quality of life.

Author: Sherwin BB. Publication Year: 1999 Citation: J Reprod Med 1999;44(2 Suppl):227-32. This review summarizes the effects of progesterone on mood and other brain functions. Progesterone receptors are present in many of the same areas of the brain as estrogen receptors, including the limbic system and hypothalamus. The limbic system plays a prominent role in …

Antiinflammatory effects of estrogen on microglial activation.

Authors: Bruce-Keller AJ, Keeling JL, Keller JN, Huang FF, Camondola S, Mattson MP. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: Endocrinology 2000;141(10):3646-56. This study identified new pathways for the estrogenic anti-inflammatory effects on brain function, potentially leading to identification of new methods for improving neurodegenerative disease, specifically involving the microglial cells. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11014219

Progesterone as a neuroprotective factor in traumatic and ischemic brain injury.

Authors: Sayeed I, Stein DG. Publication Year: 2009 Citation: Prog Brain Res. 2009;175:219-37. This review describes the effectiveness of progesterone in the treatment of traumatic brain injury, and then focuses on its potential role in the treatment of ischemic stroke.  Progesterone and its natural metabolites act through numerous mechanisms to exert their neuroprotective activity, and these are …

Novel perspectives for progesterone in hormone replacement therapy, with special reference to the nervous system.

Authors: Schumacher M, Guennoun R, Ghoumari A, Massaad C, Robert F, El-Etr M, Akwa Y, Rajkowski K, Baulieu EE. Publication Year: 2007 Citation: Endocr Rev. 2007;28(4):387-439. The authors describe in detail the neuroprotective effects of progesterone when used in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy.  They emphasize that natural progesterone has very different properties than synthetic progestins. Medroxyprogesterone acetate …