Bcl-2, survivin and variant CD44 v7-v10 are downregulated and p53 is upregulated in breast cancer cells by progesterone: inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis.

Authors: Formby B, Wiley TS. Publication Year: 1999 Citation: Mol Cell Biochem 1999;202(1-2):53-61. This study sought to elucidate the mechanism by which progesterone inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Utilizing breast cancer cell lines with and without progesterone receptors (T47-D and MDA-231, respectively) in vitro, the authors looked at apoptosis (programmed cell death) in …

Percutaneous progesterone use and risk of breast cancer: results from a French cohort study of premenopausal women with benign breast disease.

Authors: Plu-Bureau G, Le MG, Thalabard JC, Sitruk-Ware R, Mauvais-Jarvis P. Publication Year: 1999 Citation: Cancer Detect Prev 1999;23(4):290-6. This cohort study followed 1150 premenopausal French women diagnosed with benign breast disease. Topical progesterone cream, a common treatment for mastalgia in Europe, had been prescribed to 58% of the women. Follow-up accumulated 12,462 person-years. There …

Progesterone receptor activation – an alternative to SERMs in breast cancer.

Authors: Desreux J, Kebers F, Noel A, Francart D, Van Cauwenberge H, Heinen V, Thomas JL, Bernard AM, Paris J, Delansorne R, Foidart JM. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: Eur J Cancer 2000;36 Suppl 4:S90-1. This review emphasizes progesterone’s role in supporting healthy breast homeostasis and opposing the proliferative effects of estradiol in the breast, unlike …

Progesterone effect on cell growth, ultrastructural aspect and estradiol receptors of normal human breast epithelial (HBE) cells in culture.

Authors: Malet C, Spritzer P, Guillaumin D, Kuttenn F. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2000; 73: 171-81. In a culture system, progesterone was found to have an inhibitory effect on breast cell growth. When given following estradiol (E2), it limited the stimulatory effect of E2 on cell growth. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10925217

Pregnancy, progesterone and progestins in relation to breast cancer risk.

Authors: Campagnoli C, Abba C, Ambroggio S, Peris C. Publication Year: 2005 Citation: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2005; 97(5):441-50. The authors review recent findings that show that the production of progesterone during pregnancy and the use of bioidentical progesterone in hormone therapy do not increase breast cancer risk, and can even protect against the …

Progesterone receptor A-regulated gene expression in mammary organoid cultures.

Authors: Santos SJ, Aupperlee MD, Xie J, Durairaj S, Miksicek R, Conrad SE, Leipprandt JR, Tan YS, Schwartz RC, Haslam SZ. Publication Year: 2009 Citation: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;115(3-5):161-72. This experimental study used breast cells from mice, cultured in vitro.  First, the behavior of the cells was compared after exposure to either progesterone or the …

Part 3 – The science behind bioidentical hormone replacement therapy.

Author: Wepfer ST Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Int J Pharm Compounding 2002;6(2):142-6 Differences between synthetic progestins and bioidentical progesterone in terms of their effects on breast cancer risk, estrogen dominance, and vasomotor symptoms are discussed.  The review also covers the use of testosterone for postmenopausal women who have androgen deficiency because of surgically induced menopause.  Androgen …

The physiologic role and use of estriol.

Author: Paoletti J Publication Year: 2009 Citation: Int J Pharm Compounding 2009;13(4)270-275. Estriol has an important physiological role in the prevention of breast cancer by balancing the effects of the stronger estrogens, estradiol and estrone, effectively acting as an anti-estrogen.  The author explains this phenomenon and explains a rationale for appropriate dosing of estriol relative to …