Chronic treatment with progesterone but not medroxyprogesterone acetate restores the endothelial control of vascular tone in the mesenteric artery of ovariectomized rats.

Authors: Chataigneau T, Zerr M, Chataigneau M, Hudlett F, Hirn C, Pernot F, Schini-Kerth VB. Publication Year: 2004 Citation: Menopause 2004;11(3):255-63. This study helps explain the more beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system of progesterone compared with MPA because of its enhancement of the protective effects of endothelial cells on the arterial walls. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15167304

Effect of oral estradiol on Lp(a) and other lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

Authors: Haines C, Chung T, Chang A, Masarei J, Tomlinson B, Wong E. Publication Year: 1996 Citation: Arch Intern Med 1996;156(8):866-72. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 91 surgically postmenopausal women received either 6 months of 2mg daily oral estradiol followed by 6 months of placebo or the opposite regimen. During treatment phase, Group …

Physiologic estradiol replacement therapy and cardiac structure and function in normal postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

Authors: Snabes MC, Payne JP, Kopelen HA, Dunn JK, Young RL, Zoghbi WA. Publication Year: 1997 Citation: Obstet Gynecol 1997;89(3):332-9. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of 31 postmenopausal women, average age 59.7 years, using 2.0 mg of oral estradiol (E2) daily, the authors investigated the effects of estradiol on cardiac function and …

Estriol: safety and efficacy.

Author: Head KA. Publication Year: 1998 Citation: Altern Med Rev 1998;3(2):101-13. The author reviews research on estriol, particularly looking at its effectiveness in treating menopausal symptoms, and in protecting against osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.  Estriol is a weaker estrogen than estradiol or estrone, and has been found to be effective in controlling symptoms such as …

Comparison of the long-term effects of oral estriol with the effects of conjugated estrogen on serum lipid profile in early menopausal women.

Authors: Itoi H, Minakami H, Iwasaki R, Sato I. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: Maturitas 2000;36(3):217-22. This was a randomized comparison study with three arms: 2.0mg estriol + 2.5mg medroxyprogesterone (E3), 0.625mg conjugated estrogen + 2.5mg medroxyprogesterone (CE) and a vitamin D and Calcium combination (control), looking at changes in serum lipid profiles in early menopausal …

Antiinflammatory effects of estrogen on microglial activation.

Authors: Bruce-Keller AJ, Keeling JL, Keller JN, Huang FF, Camondola S, Mattson MP. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: Endocrinology 2000;141(10):3646-56. This study identified new pathways for the estrogenic anti-inflammatory effects on brain function, potentially leading to identification of new methods for improving neurodegenerative disease, specifically involving the microglial cells. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11014219