Progestogens used in menopause. Side effects, mood and quality of life.

Author: Sherwin BB. Publication Year: 1999 Citation: J Reprod Med 1999;44(2 Suppl):227-32. This review summarizes the effects of progesterone on mood and other brain functions. Progesterone receptors are present in many of the same areas of the brain as estrogen receptors, including the limbic system and hypothalamus. The limbic system plays a prominent role in …

The relationship of longitudinal change in reproductive hormones and vasomotor symptoms during the menopausal transition.

Authors: Randolph JF, Sowers MF, Bondarenko I, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Bromberger JT, Brockwell SE, Matthews KA. Publication Year: 2005 Citation: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90(11):6106-12. Vasomotor symptoms are experienced by 65-76% of women going through menopause.  This study examined longitudinal changes in estradiol, FSH, testosterone, DHEA, sex hormone binding globulin, free estrogen index and …

Low-dose progesterone therapy in oestrogenised postmenopausal women: effects on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and liver function parameters.

Authors: Bolaji II, Grimes H, Mortimer G, Tallon DF, Fottrell PF, O’Dwyer EM. Publication Year: 1993 Citation: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1993;48(1):61-8. This 12 month prospective, open, non-comparative study measured the effects of progesterone (oral micronized 100mg/day) paired with 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and found progesterone had no adverse effects on …

Subfractions of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol during estrogen replacement therapy: A comparison between progestogens and natural progesterone.

Authors: Ottosson UB, Johansson BG, von Schoultz B. Publication Year: 1985 Citation: Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;151(6):746-50. Fifty-eight postmenopausal women were followed with respect to subfractions of high-density lipoprotein during 3 cycles of unopposed estrogen. The women received either levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or natural progesterone during the last ten days of the treatment period. Both …

Natural progesterone, but not medroxyprogesterone acetate, enhances the beneficial effect of estrogen on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in postmenopausal women.

Authors: Rosano GM, Webb CM, Chierchia S, Morgani GL, Gabraele M, Sarrel PM, de Ziegler D, Collins P. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(7):2154-9. This randomized crossover study compared the effects of estradiol (E2) (2mg/day), estradiol + progesterone (P4) vaginal gel (2 mg/day + 90 mg on alternate days), and estradiol + …

Preserved forearm endothelial responses with acute exposure to progesterone: A randomized cross-over trial of 17-beta estradiol, progesterone, and 17-beta estradiol with progesterone in healthy menopausal women.

Authors: Mather KJ, Norman EG, Prior JC, Elliott TG. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85(12):4644-9. Regularly menstruating women enjoy relative protection from cardiovascular disease. Until recently, this has been attributed to the function of estrogen, despite the fact that progesterone is also present. This study evaluated the differing acute effects of 17-beta …

The proliferation of normal breast tissue implanted into athymic nude mice is stimulated by estrogen, but not by progesterone.

Authors: Laidlaw IJ, Clarke RB, Howell A, Owen AW, Potten CS, Anderson E. Publication Year: 1995 Citation: Endocrinology 1995;136(1):164-71. Normal human breast tissue was implanted subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. The mice were then treated with estradiol or progesterone such that serum levels approximated those seen in normal menstruating women. Immunocytochemical measures were made of …