Review: progesterone or progestogens lead to a marginal reduction in premenstrual syndrome symptoms.

The author conducted an analysis of randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled studies of progesterone or progestins in women diagnosed with PMS.  Oral micronized progesterone and the progestogens MPA, norethisterone and dydrogesterone, all showed a marginal benefit over placebo in symptom reduction. Author: Yonkers K. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Evid Based Ment Health 2002;5(2):56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12026905

Breast cancer incidence in women with a history of progesterone deficiency.

Authors: Cowan LD, Gordis L, Tonascia JA, Jones GS. Publication Year: 1981 Citation: Am J Epidemiol 1981; 114:209-17. 1083 infertile women were followed for 14-34 years. Those who were deficient in progesterone showed a five-fold greater incidence of premenopausal breast cancer. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7304556

Double-blind controlled trial of progesterone vaginal cream treatment for cyclical mastodynia in women with benign breast disease.

Authors: Nappi C, Affinito P, Di Carlo C, Esposito G, Montemagno U. Publication Year: 1992 Citation: J Endocrinol Invest 1992;15(11):801-6. Eighty regularly menstruating women with mastodynia were studied to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of vaginally administered micronized progesterone. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups, with all participating in a control cycle prior …

Percutaneous progesterone use and risk of breast cancer: results from a French cohort study of premenopausal women with benign breast disease.

Authors: Plu-Bureau G, Le MG, Thalabard JC, Sitruk-Ware R, Mauvais-Jarvis P. Publication Year: 1999 Citation: Cancer Detect Prev 1999;23(4):290-6. This cohort study followed 1150 premenopausal French women diagnosed with benign breast disease. Topical progesterone cream, a common treatment for mastalgia in Europe, had been prescribed to 58% of the women. Follow-up accumulated 12,462 person-years. There …

The effect of progesterone and progestogens on the fetus.

Author: Dalton K. Publication Year:1981 Citation: Neuropharmacology 1981; 20(12B):1267-9. This article looks at the differing effects of progesterone and synthetic progestogens on the fetus. Of note in this article is evidence that progesterone supplementation may reduce episodes of pre-eclampsia. Synthetic progestogen supplementation during pregnancy may produce a variety of side effects. Several references are made …

Sequential use of norethisterone and natural progesterone in pre-menopausal bleeding disorders.

Authors: Saarikoski S, Yliskoski M, Penttila I. Publication Year: 1990 Citation: Maturitas 1990; 12(2):89-97. This randomized controlled study evaluated the effects of norethisterone (NET) and micronized progesterone (MP) on bleeding disorders in pre-menopausal women. 80 patients were randomized to the trial and all were found via endometrial morphology to need progestogen therapy. They were subsequently …

Differentiating between natural progesterone and synthetic progestogens: clinical implications for premenstrual syndrome management.

Authors: Martorano JT, Ahlgrimm M, Meyers D. Publication Year: 1993 Citation: Compr Ther 1993; 19(3):96-8. Clinical observations demonstrate that patients suffering from PMS respond to treatment with natural progesterone, whereas synthetic progestins may exacerbate the condition. The authors review the differences between natural progesterone and synthetic progestins. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8222594

Transdermal administration of oestrogen/progestogen hormone replacement therapy.

Authors: Whitehead MI, Fraser D, Schenkel L, Crook D, Stevenson JC. Publication Year: 1990 Citation: Lancet 1990; 335(8685):310-2. Sixteen estrogen-deficient women were evaluated on a course of transdermal estradiol and transdermal progestogen for five cycles. Regular withdrawal bleeding was noted in all but one patient. Fourteen endometrial biopsies were performed after the fifth cycle, with no evidence …