Progesterone receptor A-regulated gene expression in mammary organoid cultures.

Authors: Santos SJ, Aupperlee MD, Xie J, Durairaj S, Miksicek R, Conrad SE, Leipprandt JR, Tan YS, Schwartz RC, Haslam SZ. Publication Year: 2009 Citation: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;115(3-5):161-72. This experimental study used breast cells from mice, cultured in vitro.  First, the behavior of the cells was compared after exposure to either progesterone or the …

Is Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement Therapy Safer than Traditional Hormone Replacement Therapy? A Critical Appraisal of Cardiovascular Risks in Menopausal Women.

Authors: Curcio JJ, Wollner DA, Schmidt JW, Kim LS. Publication Year: 2006 Citation: Treat Endocrinol. 2006;5(6):367-374. This review examines currently used bioidentical hormones used as alternatives to conventional hormone replacement therapy.  The authors acknowledge that the clinical evidence shows natural progesterone to be superior to synthetic progestins, because of its more beneficial effects on lipids, the nervous …

A comprehensive review of the safety and efficacy of bioidentical hormones for the management of menopause and related health risks.

Author: Moskowitz D Publication Year: 2006 Citation: Altern Med Rev. 2006 Sep;11(3):208-23. This review describes the various synthetic estrogens and progestins used in hormone replacement therapy and discusses their safety in relation to natural alternatives.  Natural estrogens and progesterone are being increasingly used in clinical practice and have demonstrated effectiveness in treating menopausal symptoms. They also …

A perspective on HRT for women: picking up the pieces after the Women’s Health Initiative trial – Part 1.

Authors: Gillson GR, Zava DT. Publication Year: 2003 Citation: Int J Pharm Compounding 2003;7(4):250-6. This article discusses some fundamental aspects of safer hormone replacement therapy that may have been overlooked in the debate surrounding bioidentical versus synthetic hormones:  Oral delivery of hormones is not optimal; application of hormones to the skin  (transdermal application) has many important advantages; …

Part 3 – The science behind bioidentical hormone replacement therapy.

Author: Wepfer ST Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Int J Pharm Compounding 2002;6(2):142-6 Differences between synthetic progestins and bioidentical progesterone in terms of their effects on breast cancer risk, estrogen dominance, and vasomotor symptoms are discussed.  The review also covers the use of testosterone for postmenopausal women who have androgen deficiency because of surgically induced menopause.  Androgen …

Part 2 – The science behind bioidentical hormone replacement therapy.

Author: Wepfer ST Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Int J Pharm Compounding 2002;6(1):50-54 The author describes the differences between natural progesterone and the synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), saying that the number 1 problem in women’s health care today is a lack of understanding about progesterone and a belief that it is the same thing as MPA. …

Correcting misconceptions about compounding bioidentical hormones: a review of the literature.

Author: Paoletti J. Publication Year: 2007 Citation: Int J Pharm Compounding 2007;11(4):269-272. The author proposes that any physician prescribing compounded bioidentical hormones should be aware of current information published in the scientific literature.  There is much published evidence for the safety of bioidentical progesterone and estrogens, compared to their synthetic alternatives.  Unfortunately, some expert advisory groups ignore …

The Bioidentical Hormone Debate: Are Bioidentical Hormones (Estradiol, Estriol, and Progesterone) Safer or More Efficacious than Commonly Used Synthetic Versions in Hormone Replacement Therapy?

Author: Holtorf K. Publication Year: 2009 Citation: Postgrad Med 2009;121(1):1-13. This literature review presents the substantial evidence for the safety and efficacy of bioidentical hormone therapy, including estradiol, estriol, and progesterone, which shows that it presents lower risks for breast cancer and cardiovascular disease than synthetic or animal-derived hormones.  Studies show that progestins have a number of …

Cardiovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and progesterone: a case of mistaken identity?

Authors: Hermsmeyer RK, Thompson TL, Pohost GM, Kaski JC. Publication Year: 2008 Citation: Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2008;5(7):387-95. The authors present the current state of knowledge about the cardiovascular effects of progesterone compared to medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA).  They caution that the beneficial effects of natural progesterone on cardiovascular risk have been obscured by the negative results …

The effect of progesterone and progestogens on the fetus.

Author: Dalton K. Publication Year:1981 Citation: Neuropharmacology 1981; 20(12B):1267-9. This article looks at the differing effects of progesterone and synthetic progestogens on the fetus. Of note in this article is evidence that progesterone supplementation may reduce episodes of pre-eclampsia. Synthetic progestogen supplementation during pregnancy may produce a variety of side effects. Several references are made …