Natural progesterone, but not medroxyprogesterone acetate, enhances the beneficial effect of estrogen on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in postmenopausal women.

Authors: Rosano GM, Webb CM, Chierchia S, Morgani GL, Gabraele M, Sarrel PM, de Ziegler D, Collins P. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(7):2154-9. This randomized crossover study compared the effects of estradiol (E2) (2mg/day), estradiol + progesterone (P4) vaginal gel (2 mg/day + 90 mg on alternate days), and estradiol + …

Preserved forearm endothelial responses with acute exposure to progesterone: A randomized cross-over trial of 17-beta estradiol, progesterone, and 17-beta estradiol with progesterone in healthy menopausal women.

Authors: Mather KJ, Norman EG, Prior JC, Elliott TG. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85(12):4644-9. Regularly menstruating women enjoy relative protection from cardiovascular disease. Until recently, this has been attributed to the function of estrogen, despite the fact that progesterone is also present. This study evaluated the differing acute effects of 17-beta …

The effects of short-term medroxyprogesterone acetate and micronized progesterone on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized study.

Authors: Bagis T, Gokcel A, Zeyneloglu HB, Tarim E, Kilicdag EB, Haydardedeoglu B. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87(10):4536-40. This randomized prospective study evaluated and compared the effects of ten days treatment with oral and vaginal micronized progesterone (MP) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on glucose metabolism, lipid profiles, and hormonal parameters in …

Prevention of coronary hyperreactivity in pre-atherogenic menopausal rhesus monkeys by transdermal progesterone.

Authors: Hermsmeyer RK, Mishra RG, Pavcnik D, Uchida B, Axthelm MK, Stanczyk FZ, Burry KA, Illingworth DR, Kaski JC, Nordt FJ. Publication Year: 2004 Citation: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004;24(5):955-61. Previous studies by Hermsmeyer, et al demonstrated a reduction of coronary reactivity in response to sub-physiological levels of progesterone in non-atherogenic monkeys. In this study, …

Chronic treatment with progesterone but not medroxyprogesterone acetate restores the endothelial control of vascular tone in the mesenteric artery of ovariectomized rats.

Authors: Chataigneau T, Zerr M, Chataigneau M, Hudlett F, Hirn C, Pernot F, Schini-Kerth VB. Publication Year: 2004 Citation: Menopause 2004;11(3):255-63. This study helps explain the more beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system of progesterone compared with MPA because of its enhancement of the protective effects of endothelial cells on the arterial walls. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15167304

Breast cancer incidence in women with a history of progesterone deficiency.

Authors: Cowan LD, Gordis L, Tonascia JA, Jones GS. Publication Year: 1981 Citation: Am J Epidemiol 1981; 114:209-17. 1083 infertile women were followed for 14-34 years. Those who were deficient in progesterone showed a five-fold greater incidence of premenopausal breast cancer. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7304556

Antiestrogen action of progesterone in breast tissue.

Authors: Mauvais-Jarvis P, Kuttenn F, Gompel A. Publication Year: 1987 Citation: Horm Res 1987;28(2-4):212-8. In a review of international literature on the cellular effects of progesterone on both normal breast cells and breast cancer cell lines, the authors conclude that most data indicate progesterone and progestins have an antiestrogenic effect on the breast, as reflected …

Double-blind controlled trial of progesterone vaginal cream treatment for cyclical mastodynia in women with benign breast disease.

Authors: Nappi C, Affinito P, Di Carlo C, Esposito G, Montemagno U. Publication Year: 1992 Citation: J Endocrinol Invest 1992;15(11):801-6. Eighty regularly menstruating women with mastodynia were studied to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of vaginally administered micronized progesterone. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups, with all participating in a control cycle prior …