The proliferation of normal breast tissue implanted into athymic nude mice is stimulated by estrogen, but not by progesterone.

Authors: Laidlaw IJ, Clarke RB, Howell A, Owen AW, Potten CS, Anderson E. Publication Year: 1995 Citation: Endocrinology 1995;136(1):164-71. Normal human breast tissue was implanted subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. The mice were then treated with estradiol or progesterone such that serum levels approximated those seen in normal menstruating women. Immunocytochemical measures were made of …

Serum progesterone and prognosis in operable breast cancer.

Authors: Mohr PE, Wang DY, Gregory WM, Richards MA, Fentiman IS. Publication Year: 1996 Citation: Br J Cancer 1996;73:1552-5. Higher blood levels of progesterone measured during surgical treatment of breast cancers were associated with significantly better survival, especially in women who were node-positive (P<0.01). There was no significant relationship between estradiol levels and survival. This …

Progestins and breast cancer.

Authors: Pasqualini JR, Paris J, Sitruk-Ware R, Chetrite G, Botella J. Publication Year: 1998 Citation: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1998;65(1-6):225-35. This review article outlines the many functions of progestogens in hormone-dependent and independent breast cancer and suggests new clinical applications for their use in the treatment of breast cancer. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9699877

Estradiol and progesterone regulate the proliferation of human breast epithelial cells.

Authors: Foidart JM, Colin C, Denoo X, Desreux J, Beliard A, Fournier S, de Lignieres B. Publication Year: 1998 Citation: Fertil Steril 1998;69(5):963-9. In this double-blind randomized study to evaluate the effects of estrogen and progesterone on normal breast cells, 40 postmenopausal women received daily topical application of a gel containing either placebo, estradiol, progesterone, …

Bcl-2, survivin and variant CD44 v7-v10 are downregulated and p53 is upregulated in breast cancer cells by progesterone: inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis.

Authors: Formby B, Wiley TS. Publication Year: 1999 Citation: Mol Cell Biochem 1999;202(1-2):53-61. This study sought to elucidate the mechanism by which progesterone inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Utilizing breast cancer cell lines with and without progesterone receptors (T47-D and MDA-231, respectively) in vitro, the authors looked at apoptosis (programmed cell death) in …

Percutaneous progesterone use and risk of breast cancer: results from a French cohort study of premenopausal women with benign breast disease.

Authors: Plu-Bureau G, Le MG, Thalabard JC, Sitruk-Ware R, Mauvais-Jarvis P. Publication Year: 1999 Citation: Cancer Detect Prev 1999;23(4):290-6. This cohort study followed 1150 premenopausal French women diagnosed with benign breast disease. Topical progesterone cream, a common treatment for mastalgia in Europe, had been prescribed to 58% of the women. Follow-up accumulated 12,462 person-years. There …

Progesterone receptor activation – an alternative to SERMs in breast cancer.

Authors: Desreux J, Kebers F, Noel A, Francart D, Van Cauwenberge H, Heinen V, Thomas JL, Bernard AM, Paris J, Delansorne R, Foidart JM. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: Eur J Cancer 2000;36 Suppl 4:S90-1. This review emphasizes progesterone’s role in supporting healthy breast homeostasis and opposing the proliferative effects of estradiol in the breast, unlike …