Review: progesterone or progestogens lead to a marginal reduction in premenstrual syndrome symptoms.

The author conducted an analysis of randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled studies of progesterone or progestins in women diagnosed with PMS.  Oral micronized progesterone and the progestogens MPA, norethisterone and dydrogesterone, all showed a marginal benefit over placebo in symptom reduction. Author: Yonkers K. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Evid Based Ment Health 2002;5(2):56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12026905

Subfractions of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol during estrogen replacement therapy: A comparison between progestogens and natural progesterone.

Authors: Ottosson UB, Johansson BG, von Schoultz B. Publication Year: 1985 Citation: Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;151(6):746-50. Fifty-eight postmenopausal women were followed with respect to subfractions of high-density lipoprotein during 3 cycles of unopposed estrogen. The women received either levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or natural progesterone during the last ten days of the treatment period. Both …

Ovarian steroid protection against coronary artery hyperreactivity in rhesus monkeys.

Authors: Minshall RD, Stanczyk FZ, Miyagawa K, Uchida B, Axthelm M, Novy M, Hermsmeyer K. Publication Year: 1998 Citation: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83(2):649-59. Medroxyprogesterone acetate, but not natural progesterone, negated the protective effects of estradiol against coronary artery hyperreactivity. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9467588

Natural progesterone, but not medroxyprogesterone acetate, enhances the beneficial effect of estrogen on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in postmenopausal women.

Authors: Rosano GM, Webb CM, Chierchia S, Morgani GL, Gabraele M, Sarrel PM, de Ziegler D, Collins P. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(7):2154-9. This randomized crossover study compared the effects of estradiol (E2) (2mg/day), estradiol + progesterone (P4) vaginal gel (2 mg/day + 90 mg on alternate days), and estradiol + …

Preserved forearm endothelial responses with acute exposure to progesterone: A randomized cross-over trial of 17-beta estradiol, progesterone, and 17-beta estradiol with progesterone in healthy menopausal women.

Authors: Mather KJ, Norman EG, Prior JC, Elliott TG. Publication Year: 2000 Citation: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85(12):4644-9. Regularly menstruating women enjoy relative protection from cardiovascular disease. Until recently, this has been attributed to the function of estrogen, despite the fact that progesterone is also present. This study evaluated the differing acute effects of 17-beta …

The effects of short-term medroxyprogesterone acetate and micronized progesterone on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized study.

Authors: Bagis T, Gokcel A, Zeyneloglu HB, Tarim E, Kilicdag EB, Haydardedeoglu B. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87(10):4536-40. This randomized prospective study evaluated and compared the effects of ten days treatment with oral and vaginal micronized progesterone (MP) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on glucose metabolism, lipid profiles, and hormonal parameters in …

Chronic treatment with progesterone but not medroxyprogesterone acetate restores the endothelial control of vascular tone in the mesenteric artery of ovariectomized rats.

Authors: Chataigneau T, Zerr M, Chataigneau M, Hudlett F, Hirn C, Pernot F, Schini-Kerth VB. Publication Year: 2004 Citation: Menopause 2004;11(3):255-63. This study helps explain the more beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system of progesterone compared with MPA because of its enhancement of the protective effects of endothelial cells on the arterial walls. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15167304

Progestins and breast cancer.

Authors: Pasqualini JR, Paris J, Sitruk-Ware R, Chetrite G, Botella J. Publication Year: 1998 Citation: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1998;65(1-6):225-35. This review article outlines the many functions of progestogens in hormone-dependent and independent breast cancer and suggests new clinical applications for their use in the treatment of breast cancer. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9699877