The effects of oral estriol on the endometrium in postmenopausal women.

Authors: Granberg S, Eurenius K, Lindgren R, Wilhelmsson L. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Maturitas 2002;42(2):149-56. This study conducted endometrial evaluation using both transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and histologic biopsy by Pipelle in postmenopausal women taking a low-dose oral estriol (1 or 2 mg daily) for a mean duration of 4.3 years. Mean endothelial thickness in the …

The significance of oestriol in the management of the post-menopause.

Authors: Tzingounis VA, Aksu MF, Greenblatt RB. Publication Year: 1980 Citation: Acta Endocrinol Suppl (Copenh). 1980;233:45-50. Oral estriol was given for 6 months to 52 postmenopausal women in 4 different dosages: group A received 2 mg/day; group B, 4 mg/day; group C, 6 mg/day; and group D, 8 mg/day. No endometrial proliferation was seen even at the …

Transdermal administration of oestrogen/progestogen hormone replacement therapy.

Authors: Whitehead MI, Fraser D, Schenkel L, Crook D, Stevenson JC. Publication Year: 1990 Citation: Lancet 1990; 335(8685):310-2. Sixteen estrogen-deficient women were evaluated on a course of transdermal estradiol and transdermal progestogen for five cycles. Regular withdrawal bleeding was noted in all but one patient. Fourteen endometrial biopsies were performed after the fifth cycle, with no evidence …

Morphometric, immunohistological and three-dimensional evaluation of the endometrium of menopausal women treated by oestrogen and Crinone®, a new slow-release vaginal progesterone.

Authors: Casanas-Roux F, Nisolle M, Marbaix E, Smets M, Bassil S, Donnez J. Publication Year: 1996 Citation: Hum Reprod 1996;11(2):357-63. Twenty estrogen-deprived women were given oral estrogen for 12 days followed by oral estrogen- vaginal progesterone gel for 12 days. Endometrial evaluation occurred before treatment, after the estrogen-only phase and after estrogen-progesterone gel treatment. Atrophy was present …

Transvaginal administration of progesterone.

Authors: Fanchin R, De Ziegler D, Bergeron C, Righini C, Torrisi C, Frydman R. Publication Year: 1997 Citation: Obstet Gynecol 1997;90(3):396-401. Three different doses of transvaginal progesterone gel were administered to 40 estrogen-deprived women aged 25-41 years. Estradiol was administered orally for 28 days, with progesterone added vaginally on alternate days from days 15-27. Plasma gonadotropins, E1, …

Intrauterine progesterone treatment of early endometrial cancer.

Authors: Montz FJ, Bristow RE, Bovicelli A, Tomacruz R, Kurman RJ. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186(4):651-7. This study evaluated the use of a progesterone-releasing IUD as a feasible treatment for early stage endometrial cancer (IA, grade 1). Twelve subjects were followed for 36 months. Results suggested IUD progesterone appeared to resolve some cases …

Twice-weekly transdermal estradiol and vaginal progesterone as continuous combined hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: a 1-year prospective study.

Authors: Cicinelli E, de Ziegler D, Galantino P, Pinto V, Barba B, Morgese S, Schonauer S. Publication Year: 2002 Citation: Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187(3):556-60. In this study of 35 postmenopausal women, twice-weekly administration of a progesterone vaginal gel (45 mg P4/day) sufficiently protected the endometrium in women receiving transdermal estradiol (0.05 mg/d) as revealed by endometrial …

Topical progesterone cream has antiproliferative effect on estrogen-stimulated endometrium.

Authors: Leonetti HB, Wilson KJ, Anasti JN. Publication Year: 2003 Citation: Fertil Steril 2003;79(1):221-2 This randomized, controlled study involving 58 postmenopausal women demonstrated that topically applied progesterone cream (Pro-gest®) had an antiproliferative effect in postmenopausal women who had been given oral estrogens x 14 days prior to progesterone treatment. Treatment with topical progesterone did not differ in …

Transdermal progesterone cream as an alternative progestin in hormone therapy.

Authors: Leonetti HB, Landes J, Steinberg D, Anasti JN. Publication Year: 2005 Citation: Altern Ther Health Med 2005; 11(6):36-38. This study evaluated the endometrial effects and determined patients’ acceptance of transdermal progesterone cream (PC) compared to standard hormone therapy.  Healthy menopausal women were recruited and received a pretreatment endometrial biopsy (EMB). They were randomized to …